- Transmodernity, The Transnational Elemental Stems and Zodiacal Branches Calendrical Clock and the Cosmic Breath Qi - January 30, 2020
- Why Study Chinese Medicine? - October 19, 2019
- An Old Problem in Indian Medical History Revised - September 2, 2019
Dr. Rey Tiquia is an alumnus of the University of Melbourne. He is a philosopher of science as well as a qualified practitioner of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). He took his Bachelor of TCM from the Beijing College of Traditional Chinese Medicine; BA from Manuel Luis Quezon University, Manila, Philippines, and his MSc and Ph.D. degrees in History and Philosophy of Science, University of Melbourne, Australia. His dissertation was entitled, Traditional Chinese Medicine as an Australian tradition of health care (2005) wherein he proposed the construction of a symmetrical translating knowledge space between traditional Chinese medicine and Western scientific medicine in Australia. He has lectured on the history and philosophy of TCM at both University of Melbourne and Victoria University of Technology. In 2000, the Wellcome Trust invited him to facilitate a workshop for the Closed-Door Research Conference on Complementary and Alternative Medicine in London, UK. Since 1997, he has been an Honorary Professor at Shanxi College of TCM, Taiyuan City, China.
Modernity’s Mechanical Metaphysics
Modernity, which had its originary moment as a European phenomenon in 1492 is a historical epoch characterised by the emergence of capitalism, industrialism, ratio-legal bureaucracies, and state control of military power and surveillance. Icultural dimensions include discourses of rationality, scientism (‘an uncritical faith in science’) and progress through economic development, objectivity, and in the field of medicine the culture of the randomised controlled trial (RCT). In his book Cosmopolis the Hidden Agenda of Modernity (1990), Stephen Toulmin aptly describes the cosmology of ‘High Modernity’ as one ‘which saw nature and humanity as distinct and separate’. This cosmology in turn gave rise to the Cartesian credo of ‘I think, therefore I am’ which opened the way to the mechanical metaphysics of dichotomising the mind from the body, theory from practice,‘heaven’ from ‘man’.‘God the father’ from ‘Mother Earth’, ‘space’ from ‘time’ and a ‘gulf’ or a ‘divide’ between ‘people’s expectations and their daily experiences of real life’. 
One of the consequences of the 1911 revolution (xinhai geming) in China was the political demise of the traditional Chinese calendar (li fa). On 1 January 1912, Sun Yat-sen announced the establishment of the Republic of China in Nanking, and was inaugurated as the provisional president of China’s first republic. In the ‘Inaugural Announcement of the Provisional President’, the unity of the ‘Chinese races as one’ was greatly emphasised. Subsequently, on 2 January 1912, Sun Yat-sen informed all provinces that participated in the uprising against the Qing imperial rule that ‘the Yin calendar yin li陰曆 (lunar calendar) or Xia Calendar xia li 夏曆, has been abolished and replaced by the yang calendar’ (yang li). The ‘fourth year of the Xuantong emperor (1911), calculated using the lunar calendar, will be followed by the first year of the Republic (1912), calculated using the solar calendar’. The Era of the Republic of China was promulgated, and 1912 was officially declared the first year of this historical period, with 1 January 1912 officially the first day of the Republic and years to be counted successively from 1912. After 1949, the People’s Republic of China in Mainland China adopted the Western Gregorian Calendar. Hence, since 1912, as China adopted the Gregorian Calendar and Greenwich Mean Time, the modern Western time system replaced the pre-modern Chinese time system. The traditional Chinese calendar was hegemonically translated i.e. one-sidedly rendered into the image of the ‘universe’ of the Western Gregorian Calendar and Greenwich time. The ‘primordial unity of the system of space with the system of time’ (yu zhou) was replaced by the Newtonian doctrine of absolute space and time. According to Shu-hsien Liu, this doctrine never developed in pre-modern China. Instead, Shu-hsien Liu (quoting the late Chinese contemporary philosopher Thomé H. Fang) saw
The ‘Universe’ or ‘Cosmos’, as expressed in Chinese, is ‘Yü-Chou’, designating Space and Time. What we call ‘Yü’ is the collocation of three-dimensional spaces; what we call ‘Chou’ is constituted by the one dimensional series of changes in succession—the past continuing itself into the present and the present, into the future. Yü and Chou, taken together, represent the primordial unity of the system of Space with the system of Time. Yüchou without a hyphen, is an integral system by itself to be differentiated, only later on, into Space and Time. The four-dimensional unity of Minkowsky and the ‘Space-Time’ of S. Alexander even cannot adequately convey the meaning of that inseparable connection between Space and Time that is involved in the Chinese term ‘Yüchou’. The nearest equivalent to it would be Einstein’s ‘Unified Field’. ‘Yü-Chou’, as the Chinese philosophers have conceived it, is the unified field of all existence. 18
In the pre-modern Chinese time system (which is the traditional Chinese calendar), Shu Hsien Liu contended that ‘space and time are not to be separated from the actual content or happenings of the world, material and spiritual’. ‘The ‘universe’ or Yuchou  is seen by the Chinese philosophers to embrace within itself a physical world as well as a spiritual world, so interpenetrated with each other as to form an inseparable whole. It is not be bifurcated, as is done in Western thought into two realms which are mutually exclusive or even diametrically opposed.’ I believe these ‘two realms’ refer to the ‘realm of the abstracted theoretical world’ (theory) and the ‘realm of the real world’ (practice).
In essence, the political demise of the traditional Chinese calendar in 1911 fractured the ‘unified field of all existence’ i.e. the ontology and epistemology of various pre- modern traditional Chinese natural studies and their corresponding practices including traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) chuan tong zhong yi, chrono-acupuncture zi wu liu zhu, astronomy tian wen xue, calendrical studies li fa, geomancy feng shui, organic farming, traditional Chinese sexual practices fang zhong shu, ancient Chinese divination zhan bu 占卜and traditional Chinese prognosticational yu ce 預測 systems of foretelling major climactic events (floods, droughts) epidemics, natural disasters like earthquakes etc.
Modernity: New Technologies, New Media and ‘New Modes of Existence that Replace Former Ways of Inhabiting Space and Experiencing Time’
To operate within modernity according to Sharon L. Snyder also meant to participate in the belief that one finds bold contrast between modern conceptions of the cosmos and the worldview of premoderns or “ancients.” In the field of philosophy, premodern beliefs yielded to modern dismay about how social systems determine a great deal of life experience for any one individual. German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche proposed that modernity is typified by crises in systems of morality, so that once belief is lost, there can be no restoration. He also noted that many of these crises in self-perception occur because of advancements in knowledge and an uncritical embrace of new technologies. ‘Modern’ technologies themselves participate in the decentring of human confidence in perception and planning. Modernity as a historical coordinate, a marker in a chronology of named epochs, depends on the distinction between new modes of existence as well as new perceptions of a self that attends to transport, architecture, mass events, and media that replace former ways of inhabiting space and experiencing time. Thus, some scholars will even go so far as to locate modernity with the advent of the printing press and the mass circulation of print information that brought about expanded literacy in a middle class during the 15th century. The printing press are machines by which text and images are transferred to paper or other media by means of ink. Although movable type, as well as paper, first appeared in China, it was in Europe that printing first became mechanized. The earliest mention of a printing press is in a lawsuit in Strasbourg in 1439 revealing construction of a press for Johannes Gutenberg and his associates. The invention of the printing press itself obviously owed much to the medieval paper press, in turn modelled after the ancient wine-and-olive press of the Mediterranean area. A long handle was used to turn a heavy wooden screw, exerting downward pressure against the paper, which was laid over the type mounted on a wooden platen. In its essentials, the wooden press reigned supreme for more than 300 years, with a hardly varying rate of 250 sheets per hour printed on one side.
The Hegemonic Scientific Translation of the Chinese word Qi 氣: The Calendar Case , The Hou Qi ‘Watching the Ether’ Controversy and the Inroad of ‘Western Learning’ and Modernity into China
As modernity xiandaixing or xiandaihua or ‘Western Learning’ or ‘Western culture’ or ‘Western science and technology’ sat foot in late Ming (1368-1644) and early Qing (1644-1911) China xixue dong jian西學東漸 i.e. as ‘Western learning spread to the East” , the polysemic Chinese word qi ‘lost’ its premodern metaphysical meaning which saw the natureworld and the humanworld as organically linked by one cosmic breath qi tianren tongqi.  By the late Ming and early Qing, Western scholars like Johann Adam Schall von Bell while adopting mechanistic metaphysical values which dichotomizes the natureworld from the humanworld, mind from body; space from time, as well as theory from practice, encountered problems in ‘seeing’ and ‘watching the ether’ qi氣 i.e. ‘watching for the rise of the invisible qi 陽氣and visible matter’陰氣.
Johann Adam von Bell (1592-1666), whose Chinese name was Tang Ruo-wang湯若望 assumed directorship of China’s Astronomical Bureau during the Ming-Ch’ing transition. Beginning in the second year of the Shun zhi 順治reign (1645), Schall reinstated the yearly excursion to Shun-tien prefecture to watch the ethers (qi) during the five days preceding the onset of the Li Chun 立春 forthnightly period (jie qi 節氣). Perhaps as a proleptic gesture to silence possible mutterings, which could have led to undesirable confrontations, the Jesuit sent an official from the Calendrical Office (li ke 歷科); one from the Clepsydra Office lou ke ke漏刻科) and such local officials as timekeepers (si chen 司晨) to perform the traditional operations. However, perhaps because the operations of hou chi 侯氣  were unverifiable, these officials did not normally bother to make actual measurements and instead thje timekeeper si chen simply submitted a false report stating that the c’hi (qi 氣) had manifested itself. The day before the arrival of li Chun 立春forthnightly period (‘Spring Begins,’ author) the pitch pipes were put away and a report made to the effect that some or all of the ashes had flown…The astronomical Bureau charged with making the yearly calendar, had the formal responsibility of ensuring the precise timing of Li Chun…When Adam Schall assumed the directorship of the bureau, he deliberately forced out those astronomers who had been trained in traditional Chinese and Muslim astronomy. However, he had underestimated the tangled intertwining of astronomy and yinyang numerology shuli tianwenxue fangfa 数理天文学方法. The old method numerologists had used in telling fortunes were undermined when Schall ‘changed the (spacetime) sequence of Zi 觜(the twentieth of the 28 constellations) and shen 參(the twenty first of the 28 constellation) ; ‘transposed luo hou 羅睺 (Rahu) and ji du 計都 (Ke tu) and obliterated zi qi 紫氣 ( the auspicious purple cloud) in his new calendar 新法. The reaction to this was intense, recriminatory outcry from conservatives. Yang Guang-Xian 陽光先(1597-1669) , in order to uphold tradition, brought a suit against the Jesuits in 1664— this was the so called ‘Calendar Case.’ In the midst of this conflict, the attitudes of the Catholic astronomers toward hou-chi 侯氣 (‘watching the ether’) came to be the focus of the attacks of the Chinese conservatives.”
The 12 Pitch-pipes as Instruments that Validated the Existential and Metaphysical Values of the Invisible Cosmic Breath Qi
‘During the Han Dynasty (202 BC-AD 220), when the pitch-pipe lore was greatly elaborated, the dimensions of the primary huang chung tube was also made the basis for deriving the standard measures of length, capacity and weight. In view of this central importance of the pitch-pipes for music, the calendar, and the system of weight and measures alike, it is not surprising that they should come to be regarded as instruments whereby to observe the cosmic movements’ yu zhou yunxing i.e.spacetime motion of the yin (visible matter) and yang ethers (invisible qi)”
Performing ‘Watching the Ether’ hou qi
[Bodde, “Chinese Cosmic Magic 1981,353]
The Twelve Pitch-pipes十二侓
- Yellow Bell 黃鍾
- Big Bell 大呂
- Great Foliage 太簇
- Pinched Bell 夾鍾
- Maiden Purity 姑洗
- Median Regulator 中呂
- Fringe Guest 蕤賓
- Forest Bell 林鍾
- Tranquil Pattern 夷則
- Southern Regulator 南呂
- No Discharge 無射
- Responsive Bell 應鍾
Provenance: Joseph Needham &Wang Ling. Science and Civilization in China Vol. 4 ‘Physics and Physical Technology. Cambridge University Press,1962,174.
“At all times, in recording data or information for a new traditional Chinese Calendar, numbers are used to calculate it 推之; the celestial phenomena to fathom it 測之; the waterclock (clepsydra) lou 漏to verify it kaozhi考之; and the presence (existence) of the ‘ether’ 陽氣 (invisible qi)) to validate it yanzhi驗之… Hence the clepsydra must be checked and tested so that it runs 100 ke 刻 a day. Then the pitch-pipes are placed inside the triple-walled chamber to observe the phenomena of the arrival of the ‘ethers’ 陽 氣 (invisble qi) i.e. ascertain the exact time when the reed ashes (‘visible matter’) 陰氣came out of the corresponding pitch-pipe tube. In this way one can determine and calculate whether this is the exact time or day when the sun has entered the 1st or 15th degree of one of the 12 zodiacal signs (each forthnightly period or solar term jie qi 節氣) being given an appropriate name indicating the obvious changes in nature at the time it comes around) or not 以知推算之時刻分秒與天地之節氣合與不合. 
Nowadays, (Schall) relies only upon his own calculations and has abolished those offices that used this old system… [When ]the pitch-pipes used by the Lou-k’ o Office are abolished and no consideration is given to their flying ashes, even if people go so far as to violate the hou-ch’i in its very chamber and celestial aberrations appear, who will dare to speak up? Thus will Schall deceive the whole world in order to present his new method.” -Yang Guang Xian 陽光先.
Reconstructing A New Metaphysical Spacetime Cosmic Order
Having restored the metaphysical value of the cosmic breath qi to the real world , let us now proceed to a reconstruction of a new metaphysical spacetime cosmic order in the emerging era of transmodernity.
According to Ian Coulter, metaphysics are ‘broad generalisations about the nature of the world and are usually ontological (about the ultimate nature of reality). Unlike thories that try to make sense of observations, metaphysics are a priori in that they provide schemes in terms of which reality can be approached before we even begin to think about theory. Examples of metaphysics in science include mechanism, dualism, realism, idealism, materialism and reductionism. These are all fundamental presuppositions whose truth or falsehood cannot be established empirically through observation. They are also fundamental in the sense that the purpose of research done under their guidance is not to question or test these assumptions. To this extent, they are taken-for-granted guidelines for investigations. If they are challenged, it will be through appeal to an alternative metaphysics. So for example, Descartes challenges the extreme notion of mechanism, and rescues mechanism by establishing a dualism to deal with the order of the mind. Current chaos theory challenges the metaphysic of determinacy.’ Yan Fu 嚴複 (1854– 1921) was one of the first generation of Chinese translators of European texts who used the Chinese term xing er shang 形而上 to translate Aristotle’s metaphysics.  Thomas Michael believes that the domain of metaphysics begins with the question of ontology: ‘what is there in the universe?’ (minds? Bodies? Stuff? Ghosts?Spirits?Angels?). It then asks the question of cosmogony: ‘whatever there is in the universe, how did it originate?’ (Genesis? Brahma? Shunyata?). It finally asks the question of cosmology: ‘Whatever there is in the universe, how do the pieces of it relate to each other?’ (Mind body problem, how many angels dance on the head of the pin, reductionism). Theology adds a further consideration with its soteriology: ‘Whatever there is in the universe, where does it lead?’ (Salvation or damnation? Utopia? Democracy, theocracy, or socialism?. 
Ian Coulter pointed out that Joseph Agassi in 1964 proposed that metaphysics play a dominant role in working out which scientific or technoscientific problems at any given time will be engaged with by scientists, a role given to paradigms in Thomas Kuhns [1962) theory. 
The Discourse of Modernity: A Standard Representationalist View in Science
And according to associate researcher fellow at the Institute of Modern History, Academia Sinica, Taiwan, Sean Hsiang Lin Lei, central to this ‘discourse of modernity’ is what philosopher of science Ian Hacking referred to as the “representationist conception of reality” or the standard representationalist view in science which upholds the universalizing role of theory in knowledge production. It puts theorizing forward as the main activity of value in knowledge production. That is to say, all knowledge is a mere abstraction of the objective world. Joseph Rouse in emphasizing science as a field of practice said that “action has its own kind of understanding which cannot be reduced to theoretical representations.” 
I would like to suggest a way of ‘healing’ this fractured metaphysics that separates the realm of ‘the abstracted theoretical world’ (theory) from ‘the realm of the real world’ (practice ). In its place I propose the performative metaphysical paradigm of theory-as-practice which holds a ‘macrocosmic (yin)-macrocosmic (yang) view of the living human being as the universe contained in the individual [Yinyang PMPTAP. The interaction between the yin visible material cosmos and the invisible yang cosmic breath qi brings about life in our universe. And ‘the Five Elements wu xing, are encompassed by the two Yin and Yang Qi (invisible yang cosmic breath qi and the yin visible material cosmos and the five ascending, floating, descending, sinking and centering space-time-matter-in-motion.
The Western notion of the four elements of fire, air, water and earth is comparable to the five elements wu xing of TCM: mu (wood), huo (fire), tu (earth), jin (metal) and shui (water)—in the sense that in both philosophical systems, the elements constitute the ultimate roots of all natural things. In the atmosphere (of the universe), there are four basic chemical elements i.e. oxygen yang, hydrogen qing , nitrogen dan and carbon tan .There are numerous chemical elements in the athmosphere. Aside from these four elements which accounts for the most numerous, other elements do not affect the integrity of human life. Oxygen moves upwards; hydrogen floats upwards; nitrogen moves downwards while carbon sinks downwards. These four elements combine making it impossible to differentiate one from the other thereby neutralizing or counterbalancing each other zhong he in the course of their cyclical motion. The quickest upward motion ‘floats’ fu. The most rapid downward motion ‘sinks’ chen 
‘It is also important to realise that the basic elements necessary for life as we know it – carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen exists throughout the heavens, and that amino acids have been found in meteorites. Given the proper environmental conditions, these molecules may join to form proteins and RNA of living cells, which can then replicate themselves. Such action would signify life.’ As Paul Pitchford pointed out in 2002, “in ancient Chinese therapeutics, jing contains growth and development, including genetic codes and networks ( RNA/DNA) . In many practices of ancient China, people would actively strengthen their jing with appropriate foods, herbs and awareness practices.” And this jing精is refined qi undergoing transformation ab initio.
Metaphysics As A ‘Unified Field of All Existence’
Chen Dingsan (1875–1960), a classicist Chinese medicine practitioner from China’s Sichuan province and author of the book Exploring the Origins of
Medicine, drew a circular and quadratic diagram that explored the metaphysics or ‘unified field of all existence’ of the various traditional Chinese natural studies and practices. The circular diagram represents temporality or ‘time’ (yang) while the square or quadratic diagram represents ‘space’ (yin) 圆图为时间方图为空间. The two Chinese scripts 地方 di fang may lend themselves to be translated into English as ‘the square Earth’ while the two Chinese scripts 天圓 tian yuan may be translated into ‘circular sky’. And the ‘square earth’ is the yu 宇or ‘space’ or yin ; while the ‘circular sky’ is the zhou 宙 or ‘time or temporality’ or tian or yang . My view on this matter was confirmed by Zu Xing in his book Pictorial Explanation of the Book of Change which was published in 2007. Zu Xing in explaining the picture of the 64 hexagrams arrayed in a circular manner with another set of 64 hexagrams arrayed in eight columns horizontally and vertically thereby forming a square figure inside the circle of the other 64 hexagrams concluded that ‘the circular diagrams represents temporality or time while the square diagram formed represents space’ 圓為時間，方為空間.
In performing the metaphysical paradigm of theory-as-practice which holds a ‘macroscopic (yin) -microscopic (yang) view of the living human being as the universe contained in the individual,
’ in localities of the northern hemisphere, spatial positions or cardinal directions like the northern cardinal direction, simultaneously indicate the temporality of the winter season; the sub-seasonal phase or jie qi of the winter solstice 冬至, the month of December; or the zi two-hour period (23:00–01:00 ). And in the Southern Hemisphere localities, the reverse of this is true. And zi 子 as one of the twelve terrestrial branches, together with ‘eight of the ten heavenly stems (tian gan ) and four of the ba gua 八卦 from the Yijing (the si wei 四維, four directions namely gen 艮, xun 巽, kun 坤, and qian 乾 for the inter- cardinal points’ form the ‘twenty-four compass-points ershisi fang , ershisiwei , ershisi xiang, or in geomantic parlance ershisi shan and set at 15° intervals. And the geomantic compass (luopan ) evolved from the Han diviner’s board (shi 式 ) from which the mariner’s compass (zhinanzhen ) evolved And the diviner’s board is also referred to as the ‘cosmic clock’ or ‘cosmograph’. This ‘diagram’ has now evolved into the Transnational Elemental Stems and Zodiacal Branches (Northern and Southern Hemispheres).
The Transnational Elemental Stems and Zodiacal Branches Calendrical Clock (Northern/Southern Hemispheres)
The Transnational Elemental Stems and Zodiacal Branches Calendrical Clock TESZBCC (Southern and Northern Hemispheres) is a new global space time system whereby the 60 (sexagenary) ten elemental stems shi tian gan and twelve zodiacal branches shi er di zhi cyclical symbols representing the flow of the lunar years, months, days and 12 two-hour time periods of the traditional Chinese calendar are arrayed in tandem with the years, months and days of the Western Gregorian calendar and the 24-hour system of the Coordinated Universal Time. The TESZBCC is a heterogeneous assemblage of nature, people, places and practices which are site and time specific and thus inhabits a spacetime. This shared spacetime metaphysics or ontic-epistemic imaginary entities/beings or ‘unified field of all existence’ is sustained by the social labour of creating equivalences and connections, i.e. spacetime equivalences and connections in and between various time zones in all hemispheres of the globe. When varying knowledge traditions are performed in this spacetime way, an emergent local (time), national and transnational real world comes into existence.
In the paradigm of theory-as-practice, space time qi or cosmic breath [Tiquia, ‘Paradigm’, 2015, 215] is ̳forever flowing without beginning or end‘. And ̳traditionally, it is customary for the Chinese people to use the Gan-Zhi (ten elemental celestial stems and twelve zodiacal terrestrial branches) system [to mark the passage of spacetime [Shu-hsien Liu, ̳’Time and Temporality” 2]. There are ten celestial elemental stems shi tian gan and twelve terrestrial zodiacal branches shi er di zhi. An alternating and sequential combination of the two sets of Chinese scripts make a cycle of sixty (sexagenary) lunar years, months, days and two-hour time periods in a day.
According to Thomas Michael, time and space in early China tend more towards cyclicity than unilinearity’ [Michael, Pristine Dao, 6]. In his master‘s degree thesis (2004), Li Shao Yao from Taiwan Xuan Zang Institute of Humanities and Culture argued that the ten celestial elemental stems gan and the twelve terrestrial zodiacal E branches zhi constitute a system of spacetime codes or symbols. He said:
The celestial elemental stems symbols are: Jia 甲, yi 乙, Bing 丙, Ding 丁, Wu 戊, Ji 己, Geng 庚, Xin辛 , Ren 壬, and Gui 癸. While the twelve terrestrial zodiacal branches symbols zhi are Zi子, Chou 丑, Yin寅 , Mao 卯, Chen 辰, Si 巳, Wu 午 , Wei 未, Shen 申, You 酉, Xu 戌, and Hai 亥. The [elemental stems and zodiacal branches are symbols or codes that the ancient people in China used to record the passing of time as well as one‘s spatial position (cardinal direction) in the universe ji shi he ji fangwei de fuhao. 
In the Transnational Elemental Stems and Zodiacal Branches Calendrical Clock (Northern and Southern Hemispheres), yin embraces yang, one element embraces the other four elements/agents/phases and one trigram and hexagram embraces the other seven trigrams and sixty three hexagrams of the Book of Changes; north embraces south, east embraces west, the heart-mind embraces the body while the physical embraces the spiritual; the 24-hour astronomical time system embraces the twenty four solar terms; the Gregorian Calendar months embraces the sexagenary lunar months of the traditional Chinese calendar and the human endogenous organ systems and their corresponding merdian/acutracs embrace the triad of the Earth, Heaven and Humanity. In this way, the performance and mapping of the cosmic breath (qi) in a four-dimensional process encompasses the three spatial dimensions of length, breadth, depth and the fourth dimension of time can be realised, i.e. the realisation of space embracing time.
The basic unit for measuring time is the second. The second multiplied evenly by 60 gives us minutes, or by 3600 gives us an hour. The length of days, and even years, is measured by the basic unit of time, the second. 3600 multiplied by 2 gives us 7200 seconds in a ‘ two-hour time periods.’ 7200 multiplied by 12 gives us 86,400 seconds in a day. Eighty six thousand 86,000 multiplied by 30 gives us 2,592,000 seconds in one month. And finally 2,592,000 multiplied by 12 gives us 31,104,000 seconds in one year.
The Southern Hemisphere Calendrical Clock has two hands: a shorter hour hand as well as a longer second hand that both turn in a counter-clockwise direction. This is the directional flow of the motion and transformation ab initio of spacetime qi 時空之氣in the Southern Hemisphere [Tiquia, ‘Paradigm,’ 212]. To complete an hourly cycle, the longer second hand of the SHCC has to move round the clock in a counter-clockwise direction in 3600 seconds <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aey1oJiiP-8> Accessed December 24, 2019. The Northern Hemisphere Calendrical Clock NHCC also has an hour and a second hand as well that move in a clockwise direction. This is the directional flow of the motion and transformation ab initio of spacetime qi in the Northern Hemisphere. This sequence is used to explain the principle of spacetime qi motion and transformation in the Northern Hemisphere universe yuzhou and was the basis for the development of the Chinese calendar in the Northern Hemispherical region of China. To complete an hourly cycle, the longer second hand of the NHCC has to move round the clock in a clockwise direction in 3600 seconds <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z0QvXc8yLTQ> Accessed December 24, 2019
As an ̳assemblage, the Transnational Elemental Stems and Zodiacal Branches Calendrical Clock (Northern and Southern Hemispheres) are at the same time a translation media, i.e. a transcription media upon which an equivalent version of an entity is rendered or performed. It is made up of letters, characters, phonemes, ideograms, tongue, mouth, throat, teeth, pin yin, books, discrete signals, computers, the internet and so on. In this assemblage, the performative nature of qi, i.e., the binary yin ̳0‘ (space) and yang ̳‘ (time), i.e., spacetime sequences of the sexagenary year, lunar months, days and two-hour time periods of the Transnational Elemental Stems and Zodiacal Branches Calendrical Clock is translated or transcribed into an equivalent digital version of the UTC (Coordinated Universal Time i.e. temps universel coordonne).
The system of ‘Coordinated Universal Time’ (UTC) has now replaced Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). With UTC, time (in various spatial zones on earth) is coordinated or synchronized well within 100 nanoseconds or 100 billionths of a second. Time is synchronized or coordinated through a network of 24 satellites that emit signals as they “orbit the earth at the height of 20,200 km in six fixed planes inclined 55 ̊ from the equator. The orbital period is 11 h 58 min, which means that a satellite will orbit the earth twice per day”. A GPS (global Positioning System) transceiver (mobile phone, computer) receive these signals from the satellites which then specify its position with an uncertainty of <10 meters.
Using the enabling capacity of the internet, I am developing the Transnational Elemental Stems and Zodiacal Branches Calencdrical Clock (MNorthern/southern Hemisphere) into an i-phone appliance that can translate the traditional Chinese sexagenary time system of the Lunar Years Nian/Sui, Lunar Month Yue, Days ri and ‘Two-hour time periods’ shi chen into the different times zones of the world. This project can facilitate the reconstruction of the ‘unified field of all existence’ of the various pre-modern traditional Chinese art and practices in a transmodern world like the traditional Chinese chronomedicine, chronoacupuncture, feng shui, traditional Chinese organic farming, and the traditional Chinese prognosticational system of foretelling major climactic events (floods, draught), epidemics, natural disasters like earthquakes etc. in various localities of both hemispheres of the globe [Tiquia, “1911 Revolution,” 2012]
For the years 2016 and 2017, 2018 and 2019 I have manually translated and transcribed data on the years, lunar months, days , and the twelve two-hour time periods of the traditional Chinese sexagenary time system on to my personal computer Google Calendar with its settings fixed on GMT+ 11:00 AEST Melbourne, State of Victoria, Australia. Now, I am proposing to extend this to all time zones in all hemispheres of the globe thereby developing an i-phone appliance that can generate an equivalent UTC (Coordinated Universal Time) version of the traditional Chinese sexagenary time system of the years, lunar months , days and ̳two-hour time periods in various times zones of the world.
The Invisible Yang Cosmic Breath as an Ontological, Cosmological, Cosmogonical, Soteriological, Astronomical and Meteorological Force in the Universe
The metaphysical i.e. ontic-epistemic imaginary being cosmic breath qi as an ontological, cosmological, cosmogonical, soteriological, astronomical and meteorological force in the universe drives the flow of the oceanic wave of “current and surf ( the swell of the sea bouncing on the shore of the reefs or the effervescence produced by this). The skill of the surfer lies in knowing at what time and in what direction to catch a wave. The prowess of a traditional Chinese medicine practitioner or feng shui or yinyang master rest in knowing when i.e. choosing the most auspicious Yang day ze ri and time ze shi and in what spatial orientation to perform a given act or construct a building i.e. to collect, concentrate and accumulate the universal energy of life or yang cosmic breath, and in the process hamonise and match space yin and time yang [Tiquia, “Paradigm,” 2015,220]. And in this regard, to successfully surf the oceanic wave of the invisible yang cosmic breath in various timezone localities in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, one needs the services of a new global time system — The Transnational Elemental Stems and Zodiacal Branches Calendrical Clock. And in Melbourne, Australia, this new global time system is currently being used in locating effective acupuncture points (chronoacupuncture) in dealing with difficult clinical conditions as well as in adapting to dire climate changes we are experiencing globally by aligning our spacetime Qi with the flow of season and time.
Adopting a new metaphysical world view i.e. a performative metaphysical paradigm of theory-as-practice which holds a ‘macroscopic (yin) -microscopic (yang)
perspective of the living human being as the universe contained in the individual [Yinyang PMPTAP], a critique is made of modernity’s. mechanical metaphysics. In the process, a new metaphysical spacetime cosmic order emerges thereby narrowing the gulf between nature and humanity; body and mind; theory and practice; God the Father and Mother Earth . The metaphysical values of the Cosmic Breath Qi and the Transnational Elemental Stems and Zodiacal Branches Calendrical Clock (Northern and Southern Hemisphere) are reconstituted. Consequentially, these will interrupt the decline of traditional Chinese Medicine and other Chinese technoscientific practices and their respective prognosticative power as mobile bodies of local knowledge while ensuring their continued innovation and regeneration.
 David Turnbull in his book Masons, Tricksters, and Cartographerst highlighted the fact that the South American historian Enrique Dussell’s perspective that ‘ modernity had it’s originary moment as a European phenomenon in 1492, when Europe defined itself as the centre of world history in it’s encounter with the non-European other –an alterity it has erased’ [David Turnbull, Masons, Tricksters, and Cartographers (Australia: Harwood Academic Publishers, 2000), 227.
 Professor Benjamin A. Elman pointed out in 2003 that scientism influenced a number of influential Chinese scientists trained abroad as well as other intellectuals like Chen Duxiu and Ba Jin (Li Feigan), who in his 1931 novel Family attacked ‘premodern Daoism 道教 and traditional medicine 中醫 as haven of superstition and backwardness’, Benjamin Elman, ‘Rethinking the Twentieth Century Denigration of Traditional Chinese Science and Medicine in the Twenty-First Century’, paper presented at the Sixth International Conference on the Significance of Chinese Culture in the Twenty-First Century: The Interaction and Confluence of Chinese and Non-Chinese Civilisation’, International Sinological Center, Charles University, Prague, 1–2 November 2003, 20.
 Stephen Toulmin described ‘High Modernity’ as an age ‘which saw nature and humanity as distinct and separate’ giving way to an epoch of ‘humanised Modernity’ or postmodernity ‘which reintegrates nature and humanity’: Stephen Toulmin, Cosmopolis: The Hidden Agenda of Modernity (New York: Free Press, 1990), 182–3. Arguing for a sympathetic understanding, continuation and development of the northern hemispherical ancient Chinese geomantic practice of ‘wind and water’ 風水 from a local knowledge perspective into the southern hemisphere, Michael Paton and Zhang Chengmin pointed out that ‘in the large-scale social, political and environmental evolution in the global economy we need to be careful not to wage war on nature by remembering that the earth is one connected life system’: Michael Paton and Zhang Chengmin, ‘Southern Culture and the North/South Divide: More Than a Metaphor’, JOSA 46 (2014): 26–40.
 .J. Chan and J.E. Chan, ‘Medicine for the Millennium: The Challenge of Postmodernism’, Medical Journal of Australia 172:7 (2000): 332–4.
 R. Tiquia, ‘Constructing a Non-Hegemonic, Interactive Space for Traditional Asian Medicine’, paper presented at the Seventeenth Biennial Conference of the Asian Studies Association of Australia ‘Is This the Asian Century?’, Monash University, Melbourne, 1–3 July 2008: <http://artsonline.monash.edu.au/mai/files/2012/07/reytiquia.pdf>, accessed 14 October 2013.
 Li-chen Lin from National Taiwan University in looking at three ancient Chinese scholars’ (Meng Hsi, Wang Pi and Chu Hsi) interpretations of the Book of Changes concept of ‘time’ and ‘position’ (cardinal direction) concluded that ‘all three upheld the unity of heaven [i.e. nature] and man, and denied that heaven and man constitute two distinct realms’. Li-chen Lin, ‘The Concepts of Time and Position in the Book of Changes and Their Development’, in Time and Space in Chinese Culture, ed. Chun-chieh Huang and Erick Zürcher (Leiden: Brill, 1995), 112–13.
We can also say that the European colonisation of the Australian continent signalled the fracturing of the ‘Dreamtime’ metaphysics of the indigenous people. ‘Dreamings’ are the ‘secrets’ of the ‘country’ which is a ‘complex of myth, ritual, and local knowledge, binding man and nature in a living, personal relationship’, A.P. Elkin, The Australian Aborigines (Sydney: Angus & Robertson, 1976), 43.
 “ If Western thinking arrived at a dualism of “God the Father” and “Mother Earth,” Chinese elixirists strove to transcend the yin materiality of earth and rise to the yang spirituality of heaven. The drive for transcendence is one for Christian and Taoist, but for Christian it was an act of faith backed up by will and mental concentration, whereas for the later Taoists the substance of the body itself could be transmuted.” Douglas Wile, Art of the Bedchamber: The Chinese Sexual Yoga Classics Including Women’s Solo Meditation Texts (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1992), 71.
 Chang-Tze Hu, ‘Historical Time Pressure: An Analysis of Min Pao (1905–1908)’ in Huang and Zürcher, Time and Space in Chinese Culture, edited by Chun-chieh Huang and Erik Zürcher.Leiden; New York: E.J. Brill , 1995, 329.
 Li fa refers to the traditional Chinese Calendar in contemporary times. The character li 曆 is translated into English as ‘calendar’ and ‘astronomy’, see L. Weiger, Chinese Characters (New York: Paragon, 1965), 618. Li fa is defined as ‘the method of calculating the motion of the sun, moon, stars and planets as well as the flow of the seasons’: <http://chardb.iis.sinica.edu.tw/search.jsp?q=曆 &x=33&y=19&stype=0>.
 The Xia Calendar 夏历 “which embody the astronomy and reality in the locality of the Xia Dynastic Kingdom”was the calendrical system constructed through the auspices of the Taosi Astronomical Observatory 陶寺观象built during the late neolithic era in the north central China plain. The Taosi site is located in N35° 52’ 55.9’’ E 111°29’ 54’’ in Shanxi Province, 5.5 km from the Fen River to the west and barely 10 km from Ta’er Mountain to the east. According to historical accounts and local tradition, this area was the heartland of the first dynastic polity in Chinese history, the Xia, which ruled the north central China plains along the Yellow River from ca 2100 to ca 1600 BCE. The Taosi astronomical observatory is identified in ancient sources as the location of the capital of Emperor Yao, the semi-legendary hero whose sagely government supposedly played a crucial role in the formative period of Chinese civilisation [David Pankenier, Ciyuan Y. Liu, Salvo de Megs, “ The Xiangfen, Taosi Site: A Chinese Neolithic ‘Observatory’, Archaeologia Baltica 10 <<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taosi>> Accessed April 28, 2017. [R. Tiquia, Project proposal to hold a workshop in China : “Restoring the Chinese Calendar 历法 and the Cosmic Breath 宇宙之氣 to the Real World：From the Xia Calendar 夏历 to the Stems & Branches Calendrical Clock : North/South Hemispheres) 天干地支 历法时钟(南北半球) submitted to the International Research and Research Training Fund(IRRTF), University of Melbourne, 2017].
 Li fa is also referred to as yin li 陰曆 and xia li 夏曆 while the Western Gregorian calendar is referred to as yang li 陽曆, gong li 公曆, and ge lili 格里曆 Gregorian Calendar.
 Li Chien-Nung, The Political History of China, 1840–1928, trans. and ed. Ssy-Yu Teng and Jeremy Ingalls (Princeton, NJ: Van Nostrand, 1965), 256. Also see <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Xinhai_Revolution&useskin=monobook>.
 Henrietta Harrison, Inventing the Nation China (London: Arnold, 2001), 158. Similar dates for these events are in Huang Qiu 黃秋 et al., Shiyong wannianli 實用萬年曆 (Practical Chinese perpetual calendar) (Beijing: Zhongguo Zhongyiyao chubanshe, 1994), 315.
 Hence, 1913 is min guo er nian, 1914 is min guo san nian and min guo 89 would be the year 2000, Endymion Wilkinson, Chinese History: A Manual (Harvard University Asia Center, 2010), 185.
 ‘In their desire to abolish ancient customs, the Communists did not wish to create a new era (at least in the calendar) and they adopted instead the Western calendar. But till now, they have not been able to eradicate the old system; and thus, after several attempts to suppress the traditional dates in the newspapers (as happened at the beginning of 1977), they have returned once more to the solution of citing concurrently both calendars, the “common” calendar and the “peasant” calendar’, see Jean- Michel Huon de Kermadec, The Way to Chinese Astrology: The Four Pillars of Destiny (London: Unwin, 1983), 23.
 Shu-hsien Liu, ‘Time and Temporality: The Chinese Perspective’, Philosophy East and West 24:2 (1974): 145–53.
 The relativity revolution…dates from1905and1915…While struggling with puzzles involving electricity, magnetism and light’s motion, Einstein realised that Newton’s conception of space and time, the cornerstone of classical physics, was flawed. Over the course of a few intense weeks, in the spring of 1905, he determined that space and time are not independent and absolute, as Newton had thought, but are enmeshed and relative in a manner that flies in the face of common experience. Some ten years later, Einstein hammered a final nail in the Newtonian coffin by rewriting the laws of gravitational physics. This time, not only did Einstein show that space and time are part of a unified whole, he also showed that by warping and curving they participate in cosmic evolution. Far from being rigid, the unchanging structures envisioned by Newton, space and time in Einstein’s reworking are flexible and dynamic. The two theories of relativity [specific in 1905 and general in 1915] are among humankind’s most precious achievements, and with them Einstein toppled Newton’s conception of reality. Even though Newtonian physics seemed to capture mathematically much of what we experience physically, the reality it describes turns out to be not the reality of our world. Ours is a relativistic reality.’ Brian Greene, quoted in Alan Atkinson, The Europeans in Australia (Sydney: UNSW Press, 2014), 31. The ‘unified field of all existence’ is also referred to these days as the unified theory which is an ‘all-encompassing framework capable of embracing all of nature’s laws’ which today ‘ranks among the most important problem in theoretical physics’, Brian Greene, The Fabric of the Cosmos (Melbourne: Penguin, 2008), 16.
 Yuchou is the Wade-Giles romanisation, rendered in pinyin as yu zhou.
 Weng Wenbo 翁文波 and Zhang Qing 張清 (1993)
. Tian gan dizhi li yu yu ce 天干地支歷與預測 (The elemental stems and zodiacal branches sexagenary cyclical calendar and prognostication). Beijing: Shiyou gongye chubanshe,
According to Marshall McLuhan in his book The Gutenberg Galaxy The Making of the Typographic Man (1962), preliterate or premodern cultures ‘depended primarily on face-to-face forms of communication in which all the senses –sight, smell, touch, taste and hearing—were simultaneously in play. Early forms of literacy, in which most reading took the form of reading out loud in a variety of social and public contexts, similarly involved seeing, speaking and hearing. Print culture, by contrast, abstracted the eye from the other senses and subjected it to a distinctive form of training by obliging it to follow each letter and each word, in their sequential toil across the page, then on the next line, and so on. The social consequences of this were, in McLuhan’s assessment, pretty well unlimited. The abstraction (‘disassociation’ , Merriam-Webster) of the eye from other sensory and other tactile forms of involvement paved the way for perspective art and for abstract numerical forms of calculation that proved crucial to the development of modern states and markets. Print, in encouraging silent and solitary reading, also played a key role in the development of modern forms of private life. And unlike manuscript culture, in which each letter is unique, the uniformity of print provided a model of visual repetition for the development of standardised forms of commodity production’ [Tony Bennett, “The media sensorium: cultural technologies, the senses and society,” in Mary Gillespie (ed) Media Audiences. Berkshire, England: Open University Press, 2005,51-96; 52-53].
Jack Goody in his book The Domestication of the Savage Mind (1977) claims that “the shift from writing and then to print must be considered of critical importance in both formalising and increasing the flow of information that has been the precondition of many of the features that differentiate the prehistoric societies of the Neolithic and Paleolithic from the ‘modern’ civilizations that followed.” But it also crucially changes the kind of thinking and the kind of knowledge that is possible. “ Writing puts a distance between man and his verbal acts. He can now examine what he says in a more objective manner.” Writing accounts for the difference between the open and the closed, between the rational and traditional, because it permits a different kind of scrutiny of current knowledge:” “Writing enables you to talk freely about your thoughts.” Writing allows for lists, formulae, classification, record keeping recipes, logic and formal texts of instructions. Thus, according to Goody, “Traditional societies are marked not so much by the absence of reflective thinking xingsi省思(‘examine oneself critically’ Plausible Labs Cooperative,PLECO) as by the absence of the proper tools for constructive rumination. PLECO). This is because words assume a different relationship to action and to object when they are on paper than when they are spoken. They are no longer bound up directly with ‘reality’; the written word becomes a separate ‘thing’, abstracted to some extent from the flow of speech, shedding its close entailment with action, with power over matter’ [Turnbull,Mason, Trickdsters, 2000, 151].
 Premodern technology which is referred to as ji shu 技術in Chinese, is a body of knowledge, skills and operational techniques that humanity directly applies and uses in their practical life activities. Ji shu 技術 人類在實踐活動中直接應用·的知識， 技能 和操作方法 Gu Hanyu Da Cidian古漢語大辭典,Shanghai, Lexicographical Publishing House, PLECO) . The Classical Chinese script ‘ji ‘ 技 means ‘qiao’ 巧 (‘skillful’) . Cong shou從手 (manage with the hand)，支聲 (phonetics zhi ).《漢語大字典》p. 770. While shu 術 translates into English as ‘art’, ‘skill’‘way’ , ‘technique’, ‘method’ or ‘tactics’. Hence, premodern Chinese technology refers to is a body of knowledge, skills, techniques, methods, or tactics that humanity directly applies in their practical life activities which involves skilful use of their hands. Premodern Chinese technology then is a combination of ‘technology’ or technique and a practice-based sciential body of knowledge or ‘Technoscience’.
 ‘Decentering’ means to cause one to lose or shift from an established center or focus, especially to disconnect from practical or theoretical assumption origin, priority or essence [Merriam Wesbster].
 ‘Perception’ refers to an awareness of the elements of environment through physical sensation [Merriam-Wesbster
 In 2005, Arthur Asa Berger defined ‘media’ as the plural of the term ‘medium.’ And he saw a ‘medium’ as a “means of sending communicating messages, information, or texts of one kind or another, from one person to another or, in the case of mass media, to many people… Media communicate texts for the most part. For example, speech is a medium we use in conversation with one another; it is a personal medium. The mass media are generally held to include books, and other kinds of printed works, radio, film, television, CDs, DVDs, and the Internet. With the mass media, large numbers of people are involved as audiences in the communication process… As many commentators have pointed out, the purpose of television shows–as far as the television industry and advertisers are concerned—is to deliver audiences to advertisers. The obsession radio and television stations have with obtaining money from advertising helps shape programming. The same applies to all media” [ Arthur Asa Berger (ed), Making sense of media : key texts in media and cultural studies. Malden MA USA: Blackwell Pub, 2005, 4-5].
 “The dissemination of printing to Europe terminated the monopoly of clergymen of the right to learning and higher education. It provided important conditions preparatory to the whirlwind advance of science following a long period of medieval darkness and to the Renaissance movement. In his letter to F. Engels in January 1863, Karl Marx referred to the discovering of gunpowder, the compass and printing as “prerequisites of bourgeois development,” a remark that places the art of printing in its properly significant role” [ Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ancient China’s Technology and Science, 1983, 391].
 “Modernity” Encyclopedia Britannica <https://www.britannica.com/contributor/Sharon-L-Snyder/9421972>Accessed: July 2, 2017<<https://www.britannica.com/technology/printing-press>> Accessed July 2, 2017.<https://www.britannica.com/technology/printing-press>Accessed October 15, 2019; Tiquia, Rey, “Restoring the Metaphysical Values of the Cosmic Breath Qi 氣 to the Real World.” Powerpoint presentation at the 15th Biennial Conference of the Chinese Studies Association of Australia (CSAA ) Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia, 10th -12th of July <<https://www.researchgate.net/publication/318876769_Restoring_the_Metaphysical_Values_of_the_Cosmic_Breath_Qi_qi_to_the_Real_World_to_Realize_a_global_harmonisation_of_space_and_time_laishixianshikongdatong
 Advocating digital minimalism and living better with less technology, Cal Newport expressed deep concern about modernity being at odds with solitude i.e.‘a subjective state in which one’s mind is free from input from other mind.’Quoting Anthony Starr who stated that “ contemporary Western culture makes the peace of solitude difficult to attain. He pointed to Muzak and the recent invention of the “car telephone” as the latest evidence of this encroachment of noise into all parts of our lives.” [Cal Newport, Digital Minimalism, UK: Penguin Business, 2019, 99, 93.
 “ In the 17th century, Western science and technology began flowing into China via the Jesuit missionaries. Some 200 years later towards the end of the Qing dynasty, the feudal rulers who have panicked before imperialist gun-boats suddenly turned from xenophobia to blind worship of anything foreign. This latter type of delusion infected certain influential people, who advocated “wholesale Westernization” even after the patriotic May 4thMovement of 1919. China was submerged in Western science and technology at the cost of almost total obliteration of her own fine traditions” [Institute of the History of Natural Sciences , Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ancient China’s Technology and Science,Beijing: Foreign Languages Press, 1983,2]. Endymion Wilkinson refers to this Western European colonization of China as “The Transplantation of Modern Science” into China [ Wilkinson,2000,674-679].
 Chen Dingsan 陳鼎三 and Jiang Ersun 江爾孫, Yixue tanyuan 醫學探源 (Sichuan: Kexuejishu chubanshe, 1986, 16).
 “For humans are endowed with the Six Qi from Heaven which in turn generates the Six endogenous fu organs 六腑. He/she is also endowed with the Five Elements which in turn generates the Five endogenous Zang organs 五脏. The Six endogenous fu and Five endogenous zang organs generate the twelve acupuncture meridians, the Five Sense Organs 五官 (eyes, ears, lips. nose, tongue), the ‘nine body openings’ 九窍, the four extremities, and the ‘hundred bones’. These are all categorized under ‘visible matter’ you xing zhi zhi有形之卮. None of these are unconnected with Heaven and Earth. The visible matter or substances in turn generate the ‘invisible qi sheng wuxing zhi qi生无形之气. On the other hand, the invisible qi moves the visible substances, none unconnected with Heaven and Earth. When the yin and yang qi move in harmony, then all the natural things multiply and thrive. And when the six qi flow in harmony, then all the acupuncture meridian pathways in the human body are not blocked, while human logic li 理and emotions manifest naturally. Otherwise, people become sick.” [Chen Ding San, Jiang Er Sun (ed. 1985), Yixue Tanyuan 医学 探源 (Sichuan: Sichuan kexue jishu chubanshe, 1985), p. 236.] R. Tiquia, “Constructing a Symmetrical Translating Knowledge Space between Traditional Chinese Medicine and Western Scientific Medicine in Australia.” In Complementary Medicine and Culture: The Changing Cultural Territory of Local and Global Healing Practices, edited by Tass Holmes and Evan-Paul Cherniack 161-189. New York: Nova Science Publishers, 2017,182-183; Rey Tiquia, “Restoring the Metaphysical Values of the Cosmic Breath Qi 氣 to the Real World.” Powerpoint presentation at the 15th Biennial Conference of the Chinese Studies Association of Australia (CSAA ) Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia, 10th -12th of July <<https://www.researchgate.net/publication/318876769_Restoring_the_Metaphysical_Values_of_the_Cosmic_Breath_Qi_qi_to_the_Real_World_to_Realize_a_global_harmonisation_of_space_and_time_laishixianshikongdatong
 According to Huang Yi-Long and Zhang Chih-ch’eng, hou qi 侯氣(watching the ethers) was a method used to calculate the seasons. It embodied the premodern Chinese concept of unity of Heaven, Earth and Man. The practice of hou qi involved the burying of twelve musical pitch pipes of graduated lengths in a sealed chamber while filling the pipes with ashes produced by burning the pith of a reed (Phjragmites communis). People during premodern China believed that when the sun entered the second forthnightly (ershisige jie qi 二十四個節氣 or twenty four subsdeadsonal phases or ‘climactic periods) in any given month, the Earth’s qi would rise and expel the ashes from the pipes [Huang Yi-Long and Chang Chih-ch’eng, (1996) “ The Evolution and Decline of the Ancient Chinese Practice of Watching for the Ethers”, Chinese Science, No. 13,pp. 82-106, p. 82].
The Chongzhen Chinese Calendar is a Western Astronomical Encyclopaedia. It’s first part included theories of Western astronomy and a compilation of astronomical tables (ephemeris). These tables were never recorded in the traditional Chinese Calendrical System 中國傳統曆法. They were hanged inside the offices of the Chinese Astronomical Bureau 钦天監. Hence, ordinary people could not see them [Jiang Xiao Yuan 江晓原, Xu Guang Qi yu Chongzhen Li Shu 徐光啓與崇禎曆書 (Xu Guang Qi and the Chinese Almanac), 2005年11月8日在“徐光启研讨会”上的演讲 (A speech delivered on the occasion of a symposium on Xu Guang Qi held on Novem ber 8, 2005) , <<http://shc2000.sjtu.edu.cn/0512/xvguangq.htm>>Accessed, June 28, 2017]. The Chongzhen calendar (Chinese: 崇禎暦; pinyin: Chóngzhēn lì) or Shixian calendar (Chinese: 時憲暦; pinyin: Shíxiàn lì) was the final lunisolar Chinese calendar. It was developed by the Jesuit scholars Johann Schreck and Johann Adam Schall von Bell from 1624 to 1644, and was dedicated to the Chongzhen Emperor but he died a year after it was released, so it was propagated by the Shunzhi Emperor in the first year of the Qing dynasty who changed its name to Shíxiàn calendar <<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chongzhen_calendar>> Accessed December 22, 2019.
 Huang Yi-Long 黃一農， Zhang Zhi-cheng 張志誠, Zhongguo chuantong houqi shuo de yanjin yu shuai tui 中國傳統侯氣說的演進與衰頹, qinghua xuebao 《清華學報》,23 (2), 1993, 125-146.
 Derk Bodde,”The Chinese Cosmic Magic Known as Watching For the Ethers,” in Essays on Chinese Civilization,Edited by Charles Le BlancAnd Dorothy Borei, New Jersey, Princeton University Press, 1981,366; refer as well to R. Tiquia, “Restoring the Metaphysical Values of the Cosmic Breath Qi 氣 to the Real World.” Powerpoint presentation at the 15th Biennial Conference of the Chinese Studies Association of Australia (CSAA ) Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia, 10th -12th of July .<<https://www.researchgate.net/publication/318876769_Restoring_the_Metaphysical_Values_of_the_Cosmic_Breath_Qi_qi_to_the_Real_World_to_Realize_a_global_harmonisation_of_space_and_time_laishixianshikongdatong
 This is this author’s translation of the original Chinese version of Huang Yi-Long and Chang Chih-
 Huang Yi-Long and Chang Chih-ch’eng, (1996) “ The Evolution and Decline of the Ancient Chinese Practice of
Watching for the Ethers”, Chinese Science, No. 13,pp. 82-106, p. 92.
 David Turnbull quoting Enrique Dussel sees the ‘transmodern’ as a historical era where ‘modernity and its alterity co-realise themselves in the process of mutual creative fertilisation’[ Turnbull, Masons,2000, 227
 R. Wang, YinYang: The Way of Heaven and Earth in Chinese Thought and Culture (Cambridge University Press, 2012), 66.
 Thoimas Michael, The Pristine Dao: Metaphysics in Early Daoist Discourse (Albany: State University of New York Press, 2005), 6. ; Tiquia, Rey. “ Restoring the Chinese Calendar Lifa and the Cosmic Breath Qi to the Real World,” Proceedings of the Intelligent Systems Conference, 7-8 September, 2017 , London, UK. <<https://www.researchgate.net/publication/319654236_Restoring_the_Chinese_Calendar_Li_Fa_and_the_Cosmic_Breath_Qi_to_the_Real_World_A_New_Global_Time_System_The_Stems_and_Branches_Calendrical_clock].
Ian Coulter, ‘Integration and Paradigm Clash: The Practical Difficulties of Integrative Medicine’, in The Mainstreaming of Complementary and Alternative Medicine , ed. P. Tovey, G. Easthope and J. Adams (London: Routledge, 2004), 103–21.
 Sean Hsiang-Lin Lei, Neither Donkey Nor Horse Medicine in the Struggle Over China’s Modernity,(Chicago: University of Chicago Press: 2014), 14 .
 Joseph Rouse, Knowledge and Power: Toward a Political Philosophy of Science, (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, l987), 77].
 And talking about Daoist cosmology, Chang Chung-yuan (1907-1988) in his book Creativity and Taoism A Study of Chinese Philosophy, Art and Poetry (1963,137-38) pointed out that “Chinese cosmological theories and the macrocosmic-microcosmic view of man as the universe contained in the individual” sees man/woman as a “ microcosmic universe reflecting the macrocosmic universe about him. The movement of the inner and outer worlds is intimately correlated. Outwardly, man/woman move with the vast forces of the Heaven and Earth; inwardly there is the functioning of his own organs, following their universal pattern. Thus the physical functions and the structure of the inner organs have their cosmic analogies yuzhou leisi i.e. spacetime analogies. It is on these cosmic analogies that the Taoist system of meditative breathing is constructed.
 Peng Ziyi, Yuan yundong de gu zhongyixue 圓 運動的古中醫學 (Ancient Chinese medicine’s concept of cyclical motion). Beijing: Zhongguo zhongyiyao chubanshe, 2007, 269-270].
 Milton D. Heifetz & Will Tirion, A Walk Through the Southern Sky: A Guide to Stars and Constellations and Their Legends, Cambridge United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press,2012,12. Please refer as well to Rey Tiquia, “Translating the Life Energetic Qi, Yin and Yang and the Five Elements as Ontic-Epistemic Imaginary Entities to Interrupt the Decline of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Ensure its Continued Innovation and Regeneration,” powerpoint presentation before Annual Conference of the Society for the Social Studies of Science (4S) , ‘Innovations, Interruptions, Regenrations,’ Sheraton Hotel, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, September 4-7, 2019.
 Paul Pitchford. Healing with Whole Foods : Asian Tradition and Modern Nutrition. Berkeley: North Atlantic Books, 2002, pp. 20-22. Refer as well to R. Tiquia “ The Use of Chrono-acupuncture and Chemotherapy in Treating Lung Cancer as Kesou (‘Cough’) in Melbourne, Australia : A Clinical Report, ” in presentation before the 1st International Conference of Advances in Cancer Medical Research (ACMR
2013) . Singapore. November 18-19, 2012 <https://www.researchgate.net/publication/324005558_Cancer_Singapore_Presentation>Accessed:December 22,. 2019.
 Chen Dingsan 陳鼎三 and Jiang Ersun 江爾孫, Yixue tanyuan 醫學探源 (Sichuan: Kexuejishu chubanshe, 1986).
 This diagram featured in Chen and Jiang, Yixue tanyuan, , is equivalent to a ‘cosmic clock’, a ‘diviner’s board’ 式 or a ‘cosmograph’ which I will elucidate later in the text.
 Zu Xing 祖行, Tujie yijing 圖解易經 (Xi’an: Shanxi shifan daxue, 2007).
 R. Tiquia, ‘The Construction of a Chinese Medical Lunisolar Calendar for the Southern Hemisphere’, The Lantern 9:3 (2012): 33–51.
 ‘The Chinese used the compass less for navigation than for defining on the ground the points of the compass and auspicious and inauspicious influences by a system imaginatively called Feng Shui (Wind and Water). The basis of calculation is essentially the same as that used for the calendar and the establishment of the horoscope’, see Huon de Kermadec, The Way to Chinese Astrology, 52–3.
 Field describes the use of the diviner’s board thus: ‘the cosmographer would orient the board to the cardinal directions, represented by the four sides of the board. Then he would align the number of the month on the heaven disc with the double hour of the day or night from the earth plate. Finally, he would note the constellation on the portion of the disc that fronted the southern edge of the board. These are the asterisms that would appear in the sky in the month and hour of the query.’ Stephen L. Field, Ancient Chinese Divination (University of Hawai’i Press, 2008), 93.
 Wilkinson, Chinese History, 680.
 The theme of the 2018 annual meeting of the Society for Social Studies of Science — TRANSnational STS – encourages presentations, panels, and other events that deepen and extend the transnational character of the Society itself, while engaging issues invoked by both the TRANS prefix (across, beyond, to change thoroughly), and by the problematic and evolving status of “nations” – and the reassertion of nationalisms – in processes of global ordering. Leveraging the global scope of Science and Technology Studies (STS), our aim is to intensify connection between conference participants (scholars, practitioners, and students) based in different regions, stimulating conversation about ways 4S and other scholarly societies can provide critical infrastructure for next-generation, transnationally collaborative, intellectual and political engagements. We also aim to encourage consideration of a broad array of concepts that are undergoing – or should undergo – transformation if we are to address key scholarly and practical problems of our times. Current concepts, knowledges, practices, and institutions of “the nation” are exemplary, pointing to a need for radical reformulation of habitual ways of thinking about and organizing governance, bodies and lifeworlds. Expansive reconsideration of other concepts, foundational and emergent (justice, biopolitics, innovation, Empire, and the Anthropocene, for example), are also encouraged. Activities that draw conference participants into issues of special importance in Australia and the broader Asia-Pacific region – indigenous politics, border controls, mining, climate change, and renewable energy, for example — will be threaded throughout and offered in advance of the conference. The overall goal is to foreground diverse STS genealogies and approaches, leveraging the rich pluralism of STS, attuned to the rich pluralism of the contemporary world.
 4S Sydney TRANSnational STS Society for Social Studies of Science Annual Conference, Sydney International Convention Centre, August 29- September 1 2018 << https://4sonline.org/ee/files/4S18_web_program_180825.pdf>>
 Shu-hsien Liu, ̳’Time and Temporality: The Chinese Perspective’, Philosophy East and West 24:2.
 R. Tiquia, ‘The Paradigm of Theory-as-Practice: TraditionalChinese Natural Studies and the Performance of the Cosmic Breath qi in a New Global Spacetime System, The Journal of The Oriental Society of Australia, Vol 47 (2015), 215-216.
 Codes‘ are a ̳systematic modification of a language, information into letter figure or symbols for the purposes of brevity, secrecy or the machine processing of information‘ [Lesley Brown (ed) . The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary vol. I. [Oxford University Press,1993]. 432.
 Li Shaoyao , Huangdi Neijing yunqixue yanjiu [Research on the Doctrine of Periods and Qi], Master‘s thesis, Centre for Religious Studies, Xuan Zhuang Humanities Institute , Taiwan, 2004, 15.
 R. Tiquia, ‘The Paradigm of Theory-as-Practice: TraditionalChinese Natural Studies and the Performance of the Cosmic Breath qi in a New Global Spacetime System,’ The Journal of The Oriental Society of Australia, Vol 47, 2015, 228.
 R. Tiquia, ‘The Construction of a Chinese Medical Lunisolar Calendar for the Southern Hemisphere.’ The Lantern Journal. 7:33-51. 2012.
 James Jespersen and Jane Fritz-Randolph, From Sundials to Atomic Clocks Understanding Time and Frequency [ Mineola: Dover Publications, 1999] 23
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 The binary numeral system, or base-2 system , represents numeric values using two symbols, ̳0‘ and ̳1‘…Owing to its straightforward implementation in digital circuitry using logic gates, the binary system is used internally by all modern computers. ‘Binary numeral System’.<< https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Binary_number>> Accessed: November 8, 2019.
 Digital |ˈdɪdʒɪt(ə)l| adjective 1 (of signals or data) expressed as series of the digits 0 and 1, typically represented by values of a physical quantity such as voltage or magnetic polarization. Often contrasted with analogue. relating to, using, or storing data or information in the form of digital signals: digital TV | a digital recording.• involving or relating to the use of computer technology: the digital revolution. 2 (of a clock or watch) showing the time by means of displayed digits rather than hands or a pointer. Three relating to a finger or fingers. ORIGIN: late 15th century: from Latin digitalis, from digitus finger, toe‟. [Angus Stevenson and Christine A. Lindberg (eds) New Oxford American Dictionary Oxford University Press, 2010.Accessed November 10, 2016. http://www.oxfordreference.com.ezp.lib.unimelb.edu.au/search?source=%2F1 0.1093%2Facref%2F9780195392883.001.0001%2Facref- 9780195392883&q=digital.
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 David Turnbul quoting Enrique Dussel sees the ‘transmodern’ as a historical era where “modernity and its negated alterity co-realise themselves in the process of mutual creative fertilisation” [Turnbull, 2000].
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 Stephen Jones, Daoist Priest of the Li Family :Ritual Life in Village China, St. Petersburg, FL: 2017, 14-15.
 Rey Tiquia, “ The Use of Chrono-acupuncture and Chemotherapy in Treating LungCancer as Kesou (‘Cough’) in Melbourne, Australia : A Clinical Report, ” in Proceedings of the 1st International Conference of Advances in Cancer Medical Research (ACMR2013) . Singapore. November 18-19, 2012 <<https://www.researchgate.net/publication/260423193_The_Use_of_Chronoacupuncture_and_Chemotherapy_in_Treating_Lung_Cancer_as_’Kesou’_’Cough’_in_Melbourne_Australia_A_Clinical_Case_Report>>; Refer as well to Rey Tiquia “Surfing the Oceanic Waves of the Cosmic Breath Under the Guidance of the Stem and Branches Calendrical Clock .”.Academic Journal of Feng Shui 1st Symposium – Oceania, University of Technology Sydney, Australia, 13 & 14 May 2017 <<http://ajofengshui.co.nf/wp content/uploads/2017/05/Tiquia_Rey_2017_Surfing_Oceanic_Waves_L_P.pdf>>
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4S Sydney TRANSnational STS Society for Social Studies of Science Annual Conference, Sydney International Convention Centre, August 29- September 1 2018 << https://4sonline.org/ee/files/4S18_web_program_180825.pdf>>